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Sittannavasal Monuments
by Subramanian Swaminathan

February 2008

Sittannavasal is a small village in Pudukkottai district and is world famous for its fresco paintings in the rock-cut Jaina cave temple.

Sittannavasal has an important place in the history of Tamilnadu. The megalithic monuments such as stone-circles, urn burials and cists spread in the plains of this village testify that this area was inhabited by pre-historic man. Sittannavasal is known primarily for its mural paintings in the Jaina rock-cut cave temple called Arivar-koil. These paintings are second only in importance after Ajanta paintings in the art history of India. There is a natural cavern, called Ezhadippattam, with polished rock beds of Jaina ascetics. These rock beds contain Tamil inscriptions. The oldest is a Tamil Brahmi inscription, the oldest in the district, and was being considered till recently as belonging to the 3rd century BC. According to the recent study by Iravatham Mahadevan, it is dated to the 1st century BC. Sittannavasal is perhaps the only place where you can find inscriptions in Tamil from the 1st century BC to the 10th century AD. The Navach-chunai, with its submerged cave temple, would interest those who are adventurous.

There are a number of explanations or interpretations about the derivation of the name. One of such explanations says that Sittannavasal is a corruption of ChiR-Ran-nal-vaa-yil ('abode-of great- saints'). Another explanation says that this hill, once a part of a suburb of Annalvayil, could have come to be called Chirrannalvaayil (ChiRu-annal-vaayil - 'smaller-Annal-Vaayil'). Yet another version interprets that the name could be a derivation from Siddhaanaam-vaasah, a word of northern origin, becoming Siddhannavaasah and then Sittannavasal. In the Tamil Brahmi inscription mentioned before, the name of this place is mentioned as 'ChiRu-posil'.

Location, map

The Arivar-koil


The Megalithic burial sites

The Navach-chunai

Indian Paintings in other places - Ajanta, Kanchipuram, Thanjavur

Other places of interest